HYALURONIC ACID (SODIUM HYALURONATE), 20%
A hydrophilic molecule, Hyaluronic acid attracts and binds up to 1,000 times its molecular weight in water, reduces TEWL (trans-epidermal water loss), and helps to keep skin plump and firm. Sodium Hyaluronate is a glycosaminoglycan found in the extracellular space that resists compression by absorbing significant amounts of water.
PALIMITOYL OLIGOPEPTIDE & PALIMITOYL TETRAPEPTIDE-7 (MATRIXYL 3000), 5%
Helps reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles by enhancing collagen and hyaluronic acid production.
CAPROOYL TETRAPEPTIDE-3, 1%
This peptide has been shown to stimulate the production of a protein called fibronectin, which among other things helps attach the epidermis to the dermis. The more fibronectin, the firmer, more youthful the skin becomes.
NIACINAMIDE (VITAMIN B3), 2%
Promotes microcirculation, strengthens the skin’s outer layers, improves elasticity, and curbs redness and irritation. Helpful for treating dry skin due to its ability to increase barrier lipid levels. Has anti-inflammatory properties (which helps reduce redness), anti-bacterial properties, and melanin inhibiting properties.
PANTHENOL (VITAMIN B5), 5%
Enables the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, increasing cellular integrity and eciency. Acts as a moisturizer with humectant properties.
Also known as mucopolysaccharides, this group of complex proteins is a fundamental component of skin tissue. Chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid are part of this ingredient group, both of which function as skin-identical or skin-repairing ingredients.
SODIUM CHONDROITIN SULFATE
A derivative of a natural mucopolysaccharide, this ingredient is used as a skin conditioning agent due to its ability to moisturize, heal, and soothe skin by means of anti-inflammatory properties. It is capable of reinforcing the skin’s intercellular matrix and, along with other mucopolysaccharides, is thought to be responsible for the elasticity, resilience and strength of the skin.